Beginners Guide to Sauerkraut

Sauerkraut is a great cabbage recipe that has many benefits.  It is packed full of nutrients and is rich with probiotics.

This recipe is based on a cabbage that weighs 1 kilogram or a little more, which will generally make enough sauerkraut to fill a 1-litre glass canning jar. If you have a larger cabbage, don’t worry, the recipe scales well. Expect a 2-kilogram cabbage to fill a 2-litre glass canning jar, and use 1 tablespoon of salt for every kilogram of cabbage.


  • 1 head of cabbage, about 1 kilogram
  • 1 tbsp fine sea salt / or rock salt (not iodized salt or pickling salt)

Equipment (see notes below):

  • 1- litre canning jar
  • Sealable, non-reactive jar that fits in mouth of the 1-litre glass canning jar
  • Large, sharp knife or mandoline
  • Large cutting board
  • Large bowl


Equipment notes:

A wide-mouth 1-litre glass canning jar works well for this recipe, but any size will work, and you can ferment the cabbage in any non-reactive vessel (a ceramic fermentation crock, for example). You can also use smaller or larger vessels, but keep in mind that the larger the vessel, the slower the fermentation, and conversely, the smaller the faster. If using a large fermentation vessel, you might still want to use smaller jars for storing the kraut later in the fridge.

Whatever you use to weigh down the cabbage during the fermentation process, try to use something that is almost the diameter of the mouth of the vessel you’re using to make the sauerkraut in; the goal is to keep the cabbage submerged in the brine completely. A plate that’s almost the diameter of the mouth of your vessel works well for wider vessels, on which you can place water-filled jars, or other weights. Make sure to use only non-reactive materials. You could use a clean freezer bag to contain any clean, non-reactive weight, ceramic or glass to keep the cabbage under the brine, or a clean, water-filled freezer bag as a weight.

The cutting tools, board and bowl are only used to prepare the cabbage, not during fermentation; reactivity doesn’t matter at the preparation stage, so using a stainless steel bowl, for example, during preparation is fine.

Note: Although this recipe doesn’t involve a canning process, cleanliness of ingredients, tools and hands at every stage is extremely important for making pickles that are safe to eat. 

Prepare the equipment:

Always start with clean equipment. Regular soaps are preferred, for tools as well as for handwashing, as anything that is anti-bacterial can inhibit the ferment; make sure everything is rinsed well. If you like, you can sterilize your jars by boiling them in water for 15 minutes. Always wash your hands well before touching your ferment — at any stage. 

Prepare the cabbage:

Discard any outer leaves that are wilted or torn. Rinse and reserve a couple of large, healthy outer leaves, which will be used to top off the cabbage later. Rinse the cabbage head in water, dry it, and cut it into quarters. Cut out the hard core/stem and discard it.

Proceed to shred the cabbage, slicing it very thinly using a knife or mandoline (safety note: always use the guard when cutting on a mandoline), and add the cabbage to the bowl.

Add the salt: 

A good rule for fermenting anything by this method (where the vegetable makes its own brine and no additional brine is added) is to use about 1.5% (up to 2%) of salt by weight; so around 1 tablespoon of fine sea salt per kilogram of cabbage. Keeping the amount above 1% inhibits spoilage and maintains the texture of the pickle.

Start with around the minimum of salt, and taste to decide if more salt is needed. So if you started with a cabbage that was just over 1 kilogram, you probably have around 800 grams of shredded cabbage. Begin by adding 1 teaspoon of salt (6 grams), massage it into the cabbage with clean hands. Taste the cabbage (without contaminating your clean hands), and add more salt if needed, a half teaspoon at a time, up to about 2.5 teaspoons (15 grams). The cabbage should taste well-seasoned, a touch on the salty side, but not overly salty. The saltiness won’t diminish much in the final pickle, so do not salt to the point that you wouldn’t want to eat it.

Once the salt level is at a place you are happy with, and the cabbage is well massaged, cover the bowl with a clean tea towel and let the cabbage sit for 10-15 minutes, after which the cabbage should look wet, and you should see some brine pooling in the bottom of the bowl — around 1 – 2 tablespoons. At that point, the cabbage is ready to be packed into the jar. If it’s still too dry, work the cabbage some more with clean hands, add a touch more salt, cover again and let the cabbage sit for another 15 minutes.

Pack the cabbage into the jar:

Add the cabbage into the jar and press it down tightly, forcing the brine to cover it. A wide-mouth jar allows you to get your hand inside to push and pack the cabbage down firmly. If you are using a jar with a smaller mouth, or if you prefer to use a tool, use a clean wooden spoon, dowel-type rolling pin, a muddler or a tamper to press it down. Pack the cabbage up to around the shoulder of the jar, but leave an inch or two (depending on the size of your vessel) at the top, as the cabbage will continue to release brine as it ferments. If you are worried about over-filling, you can always fill an additional smaller jar with any extra cabbage, just be mindful of the note above — different sized batches will ferment at different rates. Once you are done packing, tip any extra brine from the bowl into the jar.

Prepare the packed jar for fermentation:

To ensure that the fermentation goes well and that the cabbage doesn’t spoil, the cabbage must stay submerged in the brine. Cut the reserved outer cabbage leaves into pieces that fit to cover the cabbage in the jar, and lay them on top. Place the clean, smaller, sealed, water-filled jar (or whatever weight you are using) on top of the cut leaves and push down to weigh the shredded cabbage down.

Keep an eye on the fermentation:

The cabbage is now ready for its long, slow fermentation. Label the jar with the date and place it in a cool spot: most importantly, out of direct sunlight, and ideally between 12C – 24C degrees. (In an environment with too much heat, it may ferment too fast and become soft.) Lay a clean tea towel over the jar and check on it daily, particularly in the beginning. You’ll find that the fermentation creates little bubbles of gas that pushes the cabbage up, and you’ll need to push it back down so it stays underneath the level of the brine, or it will spoil. Push on the top of this jar with clean hands to resubmerge cabbage without touching your ferment, and do not let the brine spill over the top as it’s needed for the fermentation. If the weight has become too heavy, replace it with something lighter.

Sometimes a little white foam or scum develops; this is harmless and you can simply remove it with a clean spoon. However, mould is unwanted. Its likely cause is the cabbage not being kept underneath the brine. Many experts say it’s safe to remove certain mould if it appears (all traces and affected areas) and redouble efforts to keep the cabbage submerged, smelling and tasting the cleaned batch to make sure it’s OK. As it develops, the kraut will smell a bit cabbagey, funky and sour, but it should not smell bad or unpleasant. The smell — along with that bubbling in the first days — is a good indication that it is doing what it’s supposed to. However, it can sometimes be hard to be sure what mould is unsafe, and tolerating the risk is an individual decision. All would agree if you’re in doubt, you should throw it out.

Start taste-testing the sauerkraut after about a week, or even earlier if you’re worried about it being too sour. Depending on the size of your vessel the sauerkraut should be done at around two weeks, but keep it a little longer for a very sour flavour. Temperature will affect the speed of the ferment; in summer you’ll generally get a faster fermentation than in winter.

Store the fermented cabbage, sealed, in the refrigerator for up to six months. As long as the pickle is still looking, smelling and tasting good, it’s good to eat. If it starts to get really soft, smell or taste bad, it’s time to throw it out.

Classic Cabbage Rolls

Cabbage leaves filled with a beef and rice mixture and baked in with a classic, easy tomato sauce.


We use a head of regular green cabbage and boil it in a large pot of water to make it tender. Many people freeze the whole head of cabbage and thaw it to eliminate the boiling step but I find the cabbage isn’t as tender this way.

Meat Mixture

My grandmother always used pork in her cabbage rolls so I use a mixture of beef and pork. You can use just one or the other (or any ground meat). Cooked long-grain white rice is added to the meat along with an egg to help it hold together.


  • ▢1 head green cabbage
  • ▢1 cup uncooked rice
  • ▢1 pound ground pork (or ground turkey)
  • ▢½ pound ground beef
  • ▢2 small onions diced
  • ▢3 cloves garlic minced
  • ▢½ teaspoon dill weed
  • ▢3 tablespoons fresh parsley chopped
  • ▢salt & pepper to taste
  • ▢1 can diced tomatoes (14 ounces) with juices
  • ▢1 egg
  • ▢1 ½ cups + ⅓ cup tomato sauce divided
  • ▢1 can tomato soup 10.5 ounces


  • Boil cabbage leaves for about 2 minutes or until soft. (See note below for removing leaves). Set aside to cool.
  • Preheat oven to 350°F.
  • Cook rice according to package directions but reduce cooking time by 5 minutes so the rice is slightly underdone. Set aside.
  • Cook pork (or turkey), beef, onions, garlic, & seasonings in a pan until no pink remains. Drain any fat. Add in rice, diced tomatoes, & ⅓ cup of tomato sauce. Stir in egg.
  • Mix remaining tomato sauce and tomato soup in a bowl. Spread a very thin layer of the tomato sauce mixture in a 9×13 pan.
  • Remove or thin any thick stem on cabbage leaves. Lay the cabbage leaf flat and add ¼ to ⅓ cup filling to the center of the leaf. Fold in the sides and roll the cabbage up. Place seam side down in the pan. (See note for small leaves). Repeat with remaining cabbage.
  • Pour sauce over the cabbage and cover tightly with foil. Bake for 75-90 minutes. Let cool for 15 minutes before serving.

Tips for Great Cabbage Rolls

  • For the most tender cabbage leaves, boil them in salted water.
  • Cut 1/2 inch off the head of cabbage, the leaves will fall off as they cook.
  • Once boiled, use a small knife to cut the thick stem of the leaf
  • Overlap smaller leaves and fill, even if they’re not pretty, they’ll cook perfectly.
  • Cabbage rolls can be frozen before or after baking.
  • To remove leaves from head of cabbage, cut approx ¼” off the bottom of the head and place the whole head of cabbage in boiling water. Boil about 2 minutes. Peel off the softened leaves. Place remaining head back in the boiling water and repeat until all of the leaves are removed. Remove any tough stems from cooked leaves.